Cancers can spread throughout the body through two mechanisms: invasion and metastasis. Invasion refers to the direct penetration of cancer cells into neighboring tissues. Metastasis refers to the ability of cancer cells to penetrate lymphatic and blood vessels, circulate through the bloodstream, and then invade normal tissues in other parts of the body. Tumors are classified as benign or malignant, depending on whether or not they can be spread by invasion or metastasis. Benign tumors are tumors that cannot spread by invasion or metastasis and therefore, only grow locally. In contrast, malignant tumors can spread by invasion and metastasis. The term “cancer”,by definition, applies only to malignant tumors.